Tehnici care ajuta in anxietate. Iata care dintre ele functioneaza cel mai bine / Techniques that help with anxiety. Here is which one works best

Tehnici care ajuta in anxietate. Iata care dintre ele functioneaza cel mai bine

Unul dintre cele mai cunoscute modele de comunicare este modelul Shannon-Weaver, in care comunicarea informatiei este descompusa in urmatoarele elemente: sursa de la care pleaca mesajul catre transmitator, unde este codificat intr-un semnal, care poate fi distorsionat de zgomot, trecind prin canal in drumul catre receptor, unde este decodificat si transmis destinatarului.

              

Un alt model al comunicarii, este modelul cibernetic. Cibernetica este stiinta controlului si a comunicarii la oameni si masini (Norbert Wiener); studiaza functionarea organismelor – ansambluri biologice si mecanice. Cuvintul deriva din “kubernein” care inseamna “ a pilota, a guverna”, “kubernêtikê “ reprezentind arta sau stiinta guvernarii.

Wiener a oferit primul mare model teoretic de unificare a stiintiilor umane (biologie, logica, matematica, ergometrie, informatica) in jurul unei paradigme a comunicarii.

Comunicarea umana este, potrivit acestui model, asemeni unui dispozitiv de comunicare intre masini capabile sa transmita si sa interpreteze ordine.

Orice sistem – masina, organism, organizatie, este ca o cutie neagra dotata cu o intrare (in-put) si o iesire (out-put) si poseda o functie de transformare, care permite anticiparea out-put-ului pornind de la in-put. Orice modificare adusa unui element din sistem le afecteaza pe toate celelalte.

In acest model de comunicare o importanta deosebita o are feedback-ul.

Este conexiunea inversa dintr-un sistem comunicational ce cuprinde procedeele de autoreglare, care permit sistemului sa se adaptaeze la modificarile de context.

Sursa poate raspunde si se poate adapta la informatiile pe care le primeste despre rezultatele mesajelor trimise si se mentine echilibrul sistemului.

Feedback-ul are efecte de modificare si ghidare a activitatilor de codificare si transmitere ale sursei si poate lua forme diferite in functie de tipul de eveniment comunicational.

Wilbur Schramm accentueaza ca feedback-ul face ca procesul de comunicare sa fie circular si nu liniar si multidirectional.

Omul nu este doar un simplu canal care transmite informatie – o supune unui tratament – decodeaza, filtreaza, stocheaza, utilizeaza informatia in cursul unei exepriente oarecare.

     Un model general de comunicare se compune din cinci elemente principale:

  1. Expeditorul (emitatorul, sursa, comunicatorul) mesajului – persoana care are ceva de spus si care doreste sa comunice; este foarte important ce anume vrea sa comunice, cui anume, in ce scop si in ce mod. Capacitatea unei persoane de a transmite mesaje, de a comunica, poarta denumirea de “ capacitate de comunicare” si aceasta difera de la om la om; in farmacie farmacistul, asistentul medical de farmacie, dar si pacientul se afla in postura de emitator/sursa.
  2. Mesajul – este rezultatul efortului pe care il depune emitatorul, de a-si comunica/transmite gindurile; codificarea presupune “traducerea” mesajului de catre emitator in simboluri care pot fi intelese de catre receptor. Fiecare mesaj are doua componente:
  3. Componenta verbala – alcatuita din cuvintele care alcatuiesc mesajul;
  4. Componenta non-verbala – este constituita din gesturile, expresiile fetei, intonatiile vocale si pozitia corpului, care insotesc mesajul verbal. Aceasta componenta este deosebit de importanta in transmiterea/ perceptia unui mesaj, avind o pondere de aproximativ 90% in procesul comunicarii.
  • Primitorul (receptorul, destinatarul, cel caruia Ii se comunica) mesajului; este persoana care primeste mesajul. Ca sa poata primi si interpreta corect mesajul transmis, el trebuie sa fie pregatit pentru aceasta, sa fie “ deschis”, “apt” pntru comunicare. Oboseala primitorului sau unele obstacole, bariere intervenite in transmiterea mesajului pot face ca o parte a continutului acestuia sa nu fie receptionat, sau daca este receptionat, sa fie interpretat gresit. Decodificarea este actiunea prin care receptorul traduce mesajul intr-unul propriu si realizeaza apoi feedback-ul.
  • Feedback-ul ( retroactiunea, raspunsul) este reactia de raspuns a primitorului care demonstreaza ca mesajul a fost primit si inteles. Feedback-ul poate fi considerat si limbajul corporal al interlocutorului, reactiile faciale si intrebarile pe care le adreseaza.
  • Interferenta; contextul (mediul) reprezinta totalitatea conditiilor exterioare comunicarii. Acesta poate influenta comunicarea prin situatiile preeznte, conditiile de loc, de timp.  In toate elementele componente ale comunicarii poate aparea o interferenta, care poate perturba comunicarea. Prin interferenta intelegem toti factorii perturbatori fizici si psihologici care pot sa apara in cadrul fiecaruia dintre elementele amintite si care pot deranja buna transmitere ori receptionare a mesajului.

     Realizarea procesului de comunicare inseamna, mai simplificat, transferul ideii din mintea unui individ in mintea altui individ, cu ajutorul cuvintelor.

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Techniques that help with anxiety. Here is which one works best

One of the best known communication models is the Shannon-Weaver model, in which the communication of information is broken down into the following elements: the source from which the message goes to the transmitter, where it is encoded in a signal, which can be distorted by noise, passing through channel on the way to the receiver, where it is decoded and transmitted to the recipient.

Another model of communication is the cybernetic model. Cybernetics is the science of control and communication in humans and machines (Norbert Wiener); studies the functioning of organisms – biological and mechanical assemblies. The word derives from „kubernein” which means „to pilot, to govern”, „kubernêtikê” representing the art or science of government.
Wiener offered the first major theoretical model for unifying the human sciences (biology, logic, mathematics, ergometry, computer science) around a paradigm of communication.

Human communication is, according to this model, like a communication device between machines capable of transmitting and interpreting orders.

Any system – car, body, organization, is like a black box equipped with an input (in-put) and an output (out-put) and has a transformation function, which allows anticipating the out-put starting from in -well. Any change to one element in the system affects all the others.

Feedback is very important in this communication model.

It is the inverse connection in a communication system that includes self-regulation procedures, which allow the system to adapt to changes in context.

The source can respond and adapt to the information it receives about the results of the messages sent and the balance of the system is maintained.

Feedback has the effects of modifying and guiding the coding and transmission activities of the source and can take different forms depending on the type of communication event.

Wilbur Schramm emphasizes that feedback makes the communication process circular and not linear and multidirectional.

Feedback in the process of interpersonal communication
Man is not just a simple channel that transmits information – he subjects it to a treatment – he decodes, filters, stores, uses the information during a certain experience.

The sender (sender, source, communicator) of the message – the person who has something to say and who wants to communicate; it is very important what he wants to communicate, to whom, for what purpose and in what way. The ability of a person to transmit messages, to communicate, is called „communication ability” and it differs from person to person; in the pharmacy the pharmacist, the pharmacy nurse, but also the patient is in the position of transmitter / source.
The message – is the result of the effort made by the sender to communicate / transmit his thoughts; encoding involves the „translation” of the message by the sender into symbols that can be understood by the receiver.

Each message has two components:
Verbal component – made up of the words that make up the message;
Non-verbal component – consists of gestures, facial expressions, vocal intonations and body position, which accompany the verbal message. This component is particularly important in the transmission / perception of a message, having a weight of approximately 90% in the communication process.


The recipient (receiver, recipient, the one to whom it is communicated) of the message; is the person receiving the message. In order to receive and interpret the message correctly, he must be prepared for it, to be „open”, „fit” for communication. The recipient’s fatigue or some obstacles, barriers in the transmission of the message may cause some of its content not to be received, or if it is received, to be misinterpreted. Decoding is the action by which the receiver translates the message into its own and then performs the feedback.


Feedback (feedback, response) is the response of the recipient that demonstrates that the message has been received and understood. Feedback can also be considered the body language of the interlocutor, the facial reactions and the questions he asks.
Interference; the context (environment) represents the totality of the external conditions of communication. It can influence the communication through the present situations, the conditions of place, of time. Interference can occur in all communication components, which can disrupt communication. By interference we mean all the physical and psychological disturbing factors that can occur in each of the mentioned elements and that can disturb the good transmission or reception of the message.
The realization of the communication process means, more simplified, the transfer of the idea from the mind of an individual to the mind of another individual, with the help of words.

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