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Common research methods

Of course, there are many different ways of testing the research hypotheses.

Although this is an oversimplification, the following three general research methods may be distinguished:

  1.  experiments;
  2. surveys/non-experiments; and
  3. observation.

This is not a complete list by any means. However, it does include most of the research methods likely to be used by beginning researchers.
EXPERIMENTS

It is difficult to imagine psychology without experiments...

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Short-Term Therapy for Children

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Conceptual frameworks exist for adult forms of brief psychodynamic intervention , but not for child forms of brief intervention. However, as Messer and Warren (1995) pointed out, short-term therapy (6–12 sessions) is a frequent form of psychodynamic intervention.

The practical realities of HMOs and of clinical practice in general have led to briefer forms of treatment. Often, the time-limited nature of the therapy is by default, not by plan (Messer & Warren, 1995).

The average number of sessions for children in outpatient therapy is 6 or less in priv...

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Asking research questions

We all have our own ideas of what determines people’s thoughts and actions. Some of these ideas are seen as common sense. For example, it may seem obvious that similar people are likely to be attracted to each other. After all, ‘birds of a feather flock together’. Confusingly, we believe that people who are very different from each other are likely to get involved in relationships—‘opposites attract’. Testing the truth (validity) of such ‘theories’ is an important part of the work of many psychologists...

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Psychology of Science and the Scientific Thinking

Science and scientific thinking, as prototypes of human thought and understanding, have long fascinated scholars and thinkers in philosophy, history, and more recently, sociology.

Indeed, philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science are well-developed disciplines. By contrast, psychology of science is an infant that has much to learn from the other, more mature metasciences.

If psychology of science is to learn from these other more codified studies of science and develop its own identity, then it must knowingly proceed through si...

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Does socially sharing an emotion contribute to emotional recovery?

Why are people so willing to engage in a social process in which they reexperience negative affects? One would assume that some powerful incentive drives them to do so and that they find some important benefit in it. What could this profit be? Common sense offers a ready-made answer to this question. Indeed, we commonly assume that verbalizing an emotional memory can transform it and that after verbalization, this memory would lose a significant part of its emotional load.

A study by Zech (2000) showed that more than 80 percent of the respondents in a l...

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Talking about emotional experiences

Talking about an emotional experience is a well-known and common consequence of exposure to very intense negative emotional conditions.

As early as 1910, William James, after witnessing the San Francisco earthquake, wrote to Pierre Janet about the victims’ apparent need to talk about their experiences. At night, he noted, it was impossible to sleep in the tents which served as temporary housing for the earthquake victims, due to the continuous verbal exchanges (Janet, 1926/1975, p. 326).

This early anecdotal observation was confirmed in surveys conduc...
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Deceit as a normal developmental skill

Lying is often condemned as a “naughty” behavior in children and regarded as reflecting moral deficits in adults. “In truth”, lying is a developmental skill, which is necessary for the preservation of the sense of self, the maintenance of individual autonomy, and the capacity to relate well with other persons.

People whom we call “liars” or “pathological liars” are generally unsuccessful liars, while those who are more successful and skillful are not identified as such...

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Lying and self-deception in health and disease

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Deceit and the need to detect deception are prevalent in the animal kingdom, and reaches their highest evolutionary development in Homo sapiens.

Deceit is an intricate part of human communication involving, via a dynamic process, selfdeception and the deception of others. When used in “normal” ways, we are often unaware of our deceptive communications to others.

Deceit serves to promote social support and helps to sustain mental and physical health...

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7 Steps To Increase Your Child’s Health and Happiness

The riddle of delight is in your vitality to surrender and lift others. Energy indicates the beginning change of more capricious instinct structures (furthermore called formal clever operations) including applied considering (contemplating possible results), the ability to reason from known guidelines (shape guarantee new musings or request), the ability to consider numerous points of view according to contrasting criteria (take a gander at or talk about considerations or emotions), and the ability to consider the route toward considering.

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